Fungal diseases, including root rot, are very dangerous. They show a high tolerance to protective drugs and spread rapidly. Left untreated, root rot can cause significant yield losses. And in the case of intensive development — and completely destroy it all. In addition to reducing yields, when crops are affected by rot, the quality of harvested fruits and grains deteriorates.
Description of the disease
Root rot pathogens are ubiquitous and develop in all regions. To a greater extent, in our opinion, annual herbaceous plants suffer, since they have weaker immunity. Contributes to the infection of the disease and its spread of high humidity, which is noted during overflows and frequent precipitation. Under such conditions, the roots of the plant receive less oxygen and are not able to resist the fungi.
The disease is caused by various types of fungi that affect the roots (Armillaria mellea, Rosellinia necatrix, etc.). They develop in various types of soil, which contributes to the wide spread of the disease. Root rot affects many types of crops and wild plants: cereals, corn, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, flowers, and more.
Mushrooms that provoke the development of rot are active in a wide temperature range — 2-40 ° C. But the optimal values at which mushrooms multiply intensively are 18-28 ° C. The following factors serve as an impetus for the active growth of pathogens:
adverse weather conditions (raininess);
violations in the care of plants.
The main difficulty in the fight against root rot is the difficulty of diagnosing the disease in the early stages of development. When it is possible to identify the disease, it is almost impossible to cure it. Symptoms vary from culture to culture, but there is one thing in common: the root system suffers from the disease. In a sick plant, the root neck rots, if you dig up the culture, you can see the affected areas of the roots.
Symptoms of root rot in popular vegetable crops
General wilt even when watered, lower leaf necrosis
The appearance of spots on the leaves, yellowing of the latter, the death of the ovary and the browning of the fruit
The appearance of streaks or brown spots on the plants at soil level, their growth and the formation of constrictions
On a note! Zoospores of pathogens are very viable: they remain on plant debris from which they enter the soil, on seeds
Types of root rot
The type of disease depends on the pathogen, which, in turn, affects the choice of treatment regimen. Symptoms, course and consequences in different species are very similar. The difference lies in what cultures they hit.
ophiopathic root rot
The causative agent develops intensively in soils in which a deficiency of organic matter is noted. It affects plants at the earliest stages: the seeds show low germination, and the emerging seedlings are very weak. The stems turn black, thin and break in the wind, watering. This type of disease is often referred to as «black leg».
The foci of this type of disease are noted during warm and mild winters with frequent thaws. It is during these periods that the pathogen actively grows and multiplies, affecting plants. Mostly perennial crops suffer from fungal spores.
The most common type. It is characterized by classic manifestations and course of the disease. The pathogen owes its wide distribution to its “indiscriminateness”: it infects both cultivated and weed plants. If the latter are not removed from the site, they “preserve” spores, which then infect the planted crops.
A species that poses a danger to the grain production industry in agriculture. First, spots appear on the lower parts of cereal plants, and then the crops lie down. The danger is that the spores spread not only to neighboring plants, but are also carried over vast areas by the wind. As a result, the entire field is infected, the yield is reduced by 20% or more.
On a note! In order not to have to often resort to fungicides to save the crop, it is necessary to adhere to the recommended sowing dates and planting depths for the region.
Common on cereals and potatoes. The type of disease has an alternative name — «black scab». Spores are intensively distributed in heavy bunches with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. Although, according to experimental data, acidity does not have a significant effect on distribution.
How to treat
Fungi that cause root rot are very viable. Since they are resistant even to very strong pesticides, diseased plants are destroyed during the intensive development of the disease. The reception helps to prevent the spread of spores and the defeat of other plant crops. The excavated specimen is destroyed, and the soil is disinfected.
Since the soil becomes the source of the spread of a harmful disease, in our opinion, it is advisable to resort to the treatment of only indoor flowers and seedlings grown in separate pots. Under such conditions, even if the spores remain in the soil, they will not infect neighboring plants.
Chemical methods of protection
If it was possible to diagnose the disease in the early stages of development on single plants, they are treated. Effective chemical and biological means of protection — fungicides:
Previcur Energy. Broad-spectrum drug. It is suitable for many crops, but due to its high cost, analogues can be purchased.
«Topaz». The biological product does not accumulate in fruits, therefore it is safe both for plants and for a person who will consume the crop harvested from treated crops. Used on trees, bushes and herbaceous plants against root rot, rust and powdery mildew.
Fitolavin. It is used not only as a fungicide, but also as a broad-spectrum pesticide against certain insects and weeds. But the method of preparation of the working liquid, the consumption rate depends on the object of processing.
Since the pathogen shows high resistance even to pesticides, it will not be possible to defeat it with the help of folk remedies. In our opinion, it is possible to slow down the process of plant decay and harvest. Prepare funds according to several recipes:
You will need chalk, coal and ash. The components are ground into powder, mixed. The mixture is sprinkled on the root neck, the bare part of the rhizome and the base of the stem.
Take crushed chalk in the amount of 3 tbsp. l., blue vitriol — 1 tsp, water — ½ liter jar. The components are mixed, preparing the talker. The resulting solution lubricates the lower part of the stem and the root neck.
Since root rot is almost impossible to get rid of, its development should be prevented. In addition, this approach is cost-effective: a significant amount of money can be saved on treatment.
Growing rot-resistant varieties
The cultivation process begins with the selection of varieties. The catalog of the latter is annually updated with new developments that have improved many characteristics, including resistance to pathogenic organisms. Although the price of such seed or planting material is higher, varietal representatives have strong immunity, which makes it possible to avoid the development of root rot even at the stage of seedlings or seedlings.
It is impossible to get seeds from hybrid plants on your own: they lose the quality of the parent specimen. When growing vegetables, if there are extensive foci of the disease in the region, you should not save money by using your own seed. It is better to annually purchase seeds of hybrids bred specifically for such regions.
Plants need a balanced diet at all stages of growth. Fertile soil provides strong immunity, which is able to resist root rot pathogens. Feeding begins from the seedling stage, since during this period the cultures are most vulnerable.
But although ophiopathic rot affects plants in poor organic soil. The latter is introduced carefully, since it is often a source of harmful microorganisms. From organic fertilizers, preference is given to wood ash. It not only enriches the soil with nutrients, but also has a disinfecting effect.
Often the cause of plant damage by rot is infected soil. Before sowing seeds for seedlings, it is disinfected in one of the convenient ways:
Ignite in the oven for 20 minutes at 200°C.
Steam on a steam bath for about 30 minutes.
Incubate for 10 minutes in the microwave at maximum power.
The soil in the beds is also disinfected. Before planting plants or sowing seeds directly into the wells, it is poured with boiling water. If plants suffering from a disease were previously grown on the site, the soil is disinfected with a fungicide solution.
When buying treated seeds, this preventive measure is skipped. Any manipulation can, on the contrary, damage the protective shell. Self-collected or untreated seeds must be prepared. First of all, calibration is carried out by removing substandard specimens that will not sprout, which can be misleading. Sequencing:
Salt solution is prepared — 3-5%.
Seeds are placed in it and intensively mixed.
After 5 minutes, they are poured together with non-drowned specimens.
The rest are washed and dried in the shade.
Then proceed to decontamination to destroy the pathogen, if any. Use a 0.5-1% solution of potassium permanganate, baking soda (5 g per 1 liter of water) — with an exposure of 20 minutes. In our opinion, a 10% hydrogen peroxide solution preheated to 40°C is effective. It is enough to withstand the seeds in it for 7-8 minutes.
Compliance with crop rotation and irrigation regime
Since root rot develops in conditions of high humidity, moisture stagnation in the root system of plants should not be allowed. This is achieved by complying with the requirements for planting / sowing (to soil, place), as well as the irrigation regime recommended for a particular crop. With frequent precipitation, regular loosening is carried out to facilitate the access of oxygen to the roots.
Crop rotation must not be disturbed, since it is designed taking into account the accumulation of a stock of specialized pests and diseases in the soil. Growing a crop in the same place for several years leads to a significant decrease in yield even when planting healthy planting material due to the development of diseases due to the intensive reproduction of the pathogen.
Root rot is a dangerous disease that is difficult to treat. In our opinion, it is important to observe the agricultural technology of growing crops, then it will be possible to avoid the development of pathogens and preserve the crop, the decorativeness of plants.
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